Paper by Eirini Sarigiannidou 2019

The paper "Paramagnetic gold in a highly disordered Au-Ni-O alloy" has been published in Scientific Reports
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Here you will find the paper by Eirini Sarigiannidou
"Magnetic materials are usually classifed into a distinct category such as diamagnets, paramagnets or ferromagnets. The enormous progress in materials science allows one nowadays, however, to change the magnetic nature of an element in a material. Gold, in bulk form, is traditionally a diamagnet. But in a ferromagnetic environment, it can adopt an induced ferromagnetic moment. Moreover, the growth of gold under certain conditions may lead to a spontaneous ferromagnetic or paramagnetic response. Here, we report on paramagnetic gold in a highly disordered Au–Ni–O alloy and focus on the unusual magnetic response. Such materials are mainly considered for plasmonic applications. Thin flms containing Au, Ni and NiO are fabricated by co-deposition of Ni and Au in a medium vacuum of 2×10−2 mbar. As a result, Au is in a fully disordered state forming in some cases isolated nanocrystallites of up to 4nm in diameter as revealed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The disorder and the environment, which is rich in oxygen, lead to remarkable magnetic properties of Au: an induced ferromagnetic and a paramagnetic state. This can be proven by measuring the x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. Our experiments show a way to establish and monitor Au paramagnetism in alloys."