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Synthèse et propriétés de monocristaux, de poudres, films minces ou hétérostructures

Etudes à l'interface avec la matière biologique

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Development of atmospheric plasma Enhanced SPatial ATomiC layer deposition (SALD) for application to silicon Heterojunction solar cells.

Project ID: ANR-16-CE05-0021

Program ANR 2016
Duration 1/2017 -03/2021

Project coordinator: David Muñoz-Rojas (Laboratoire des Matériaux et du Génie Physique)

The aim of this project is threefold:
1.- To develop an atmospheric plasma enhanced spatial atomic layer deposition (APE-SALD) setup. SALD is a recent variation of conventional ALD in which the precursors are separated in space rather than in time, thus allowing processing at atmospheric pressure and orders of magnitude faster deposition rates. Atmospheric plasma assistance would further expand the possibilities of this appealing technique thanks to processing at lower Ts (=150 ºC) with a larger precursor choice.
2.- To apply the developed APE-SALD system for the deposition of ZnO based transparent conductive oxide (TCO) electrodes on Si heterojunction (HET) solar cells, as an alternative to currently used sputtered ITO. SALD is an ideal technique for this HET technology since the presence of active amorphous Si layers on this type of cells requires soft deposition conditions, together with high throughput processing, in order to be industrially competitive. Reciprocally, the stringent processing requirements imposed by HET cells constitute an ideal test bench allowing the evaluation of the full potential of APE-SALD.
3.- On a more fun damental level, to characterize in-situ the plasma and reaction intermediates to understand the reaction mechanisms and the plasma species being generated.


spatial atmospheric layer deposition; transparent conductive materials; silicon heterojunction solar cells; in-situ characterization; thin films; semiconducting materials; Chemical deposition; atmospheric plasma


Joint Publications between partners:

Article involving LMGP, LTM and GREMI:

  • Nguyen, V. H. et al. Atmospheric PlasmaEnhanced Spatial Chemical Vapor Deposition of SiO2 Using Trivinylmethoxysilane and Oxygen Plasma. Chem. Mater. 32, 5153–5161 (2020).

Article involving LMGP and Annealsys:

  • MuñozRojas, D. et al. Speeding up the unique assets of atomic layer deposition. Mater. Today Chem. 12, 96–120 (2019).

Article involving LMGP and GREMI:

  • Zoubian, F. et al. Development and characterization of an atmospheric pressure plasma reactor compatible with spatial ALD. J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 1243, 012002 (2019).

Articles involving LMGP and INES:

  • Nguyen, V. H. et al. Electron tunneling through grain boundaries in transparent conductive oxides and implications for electrical conductivity: the case of ZnO:Al thin films. Mater. Horizons 5, 715–726 (2018).
  • Nguyen, V. H. et al. Impact of precursor exposure on process efficiency and film properties in spatial atomic layer deposition. Chem. Eng. J. 403, 126234 (2021).

Inidvidual Publications:

Articles related to DESPATCH involving LMGP on composite electrodes with metallic nanowires and other transparent conductive materials:

  • Nguyen, V. H. et al. Lowcost fabrication of flexible transparent electrodes based on Al doped ZnO and silver nanowire nanocomposites: impact of the network density. Nanoscale 11, 12097–12107 (2019).
  • Papanastasiou, D. T. et al. Transparent Heaters : A Review. Adv. Funct. Mater. 30(1), 1910225 (2020).
  • Aghazadehchors, S. et al. Versatility of bilayer metal oxide coatings on silver nanowire networks for enhanced stability with minimal transparency loss. Nanoscale 11, 19969–19979 (2019).
  • Resende, J. et al. Planar and Transparent Memristive Devices Based on Titanium Oxide Coated Silver Nanowire Networks with Tunable Switching Voltage. Small 17, 2007344 (2021).
  • Hanauer, S. et al. Transparent and Mechanically Resistant SilverNanowire-Based Low-Emissivity Coatings. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 13, 21971–21978 (2021).

Articles related to DESPATCH involving LMGP on the modelling and development of SALD heads and system:

  • Masse de la Huerta, C. A. et al. Influence of the Geometric Parameters on the Deposition Mode in Spatial Atomic Layer Deposition : A Novel Approach to AreaSelective Deposition. Coatings 9, 5 (2018).
  • Masse de la Huerta, C. A. M. et al. GasPhase 3D Printing of Functional Materials. Adv. Mater. Technol. 5(12), 2000657 (2020).

Articles related to DESPATCH involving LMGP on the deposition of functional SALD coatings for different applications:

  • Nguyen, V. H., Bellet, D., Masenelli, B. & MuñozRojas, D. Increasing the Electron Mobility of ZnO-Based Transparent Conductive Films Deposited by Open-Air Methods for Enhanced Sensing Performance. ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 1, 6922–6931 (2018).
  • Alshehri, A. H. et al. QuantumTunneling Metal-Insulator-Metal Diodes Made by Rapid Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition. Adv. Funct. Mater. 29, 1805533 (2019).

The results obtained in the DESPATCH project have been featured as covers or frontispieces of different journals, as shown below:

Book chapters :

  • Ch1- “Spatial Atomic Layer Deposition". D. Muñoz-Rojas, V.H. Nguyen, C. Masse de la Huerta, C. Jiménez, D. Bellet. IntechOpen (2019) ; DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.82439
  • Ch2- "Recent progress in the study of silver nanowire networks and their applications" D.T. Papanastasiou, T. Sannicolo, J. Resende, V.H. Nguyen, C. Jiménez, D. Muñoz-Rojas, N.D. Nguyen, D. Bellet Pages 381-406, edited by J. Zhu, B. Liu, D. Bellet (2019), Verlag (2019), ISBN: 978-620-2-22099-6
  • Ch3- “Metallic nanowire percolating networks: from main properties to applications” D. Bellet, D. T. Papanastasiou, J. Resende, V. H. Nguyen, C. Jiménez, N. D. Nguyen, D. Muñoz-Rojas. Intechopen (2019); DOI:

Patents :

  • Inventors: Carella Alexandre; Schultheiss Amélie; Simonato Jean-Pierre; Muñoz-Rojas David; Nguyen Viet Huong; Sekkat Abderrahime. Application Number: FR2008843; Priority Date: 31/8/2020. Country: France; Owner: CEA, Universite Grenoble Alpes, Centre National De La Recherche Scientifique, Institut Polytechnique De Grenoble
  • Inventors: Muñoz-Rojas, David; Title: Compact head and compact system for vapor deposition. Application Number: FR 1857072; Priority Date: 30/07/2018. Country: France; Owner: CNRS.
  • (INES et LMGP). Inventors: Gerenton, Félix; Harrison, Sanuel; Muñoz, Delfina; Muñoz-Rojas, David; Nguyen, Viet Huong; Title: procédé de passivation de cellules photovoltaïques et procédé de fabrication de sous-cellules photovoltaïques passivées. Application Number: 1874013; Date: 21/12/2018. Country: France; Owner: CEA.

Date of update June 15, 2021

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Université Grenoble Alpes