Publication by Petros Abi Younes & Hubert Renevier

The article entitled "Quantitative in situ synchrotron X-ray analysis of the ALD/MLD growth of transition metal dichalcogenide TiS2 ultrathin films" has been published in Nanoscale.
Here you will find the article by Petros Abi Younes & Hubert Renevier :
"We present the results of a full quantitative analysis of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) performed in situ during the growth of ultrathin titanium disulfide (TiS2) films via an innovative two-step process, i.e. atomic layer deposition/molecular layer deposition (ALD/MLD) followed by annealing. This growth strategy aims at separating the growth process from the crystallization process by first creating an amorphous Ti-thiolate that is converted later to crystalline TiS2 via thermal annealing. The simultaneous analysis of Ti and S K-edge XAS spectra, exploiting the insights from density functional theory calculations, allows us to shed light on the chemical and structural mechanisms underlying the main steps of growth. The nature of the bonding at the base of the interface creation with the SiO2 substrate is disclosed in this study. Evidence of a progressive incorporation of S in the amorphous Ti-thiolate is given. Finally, it is shown that the annealing step plays a critical role since the transformation of the Ti-thiolate into nanocrystalline TiS2 and the loss of S are simultaneously induced, validating the two-step synthesis approach, which entails distinct growth and crystallization steps. These observations contribute to a deeper understanding of the bonding mechanism at the interface and provide insights for future research in this field and the generation of ultra-thin layered materials."