"The control over the adsorption or grafting of biomolecules from a liquid to a solid interface is of fundamental importance in different fields, such as drug delivery, pharmaceutics, diagnostics, and tissue engineering. It is thus important to understand and characterize how biomolecules interact with surfaces and to quantitatively measure parameters such as adsorbed amount, kinetics of adsorption and desorption, conformation of the adsorbed biomolecules, orientation, and aggregation state. A better understanding of these interfacial phenomena will help optimize the engineering of biofunctional surfaces, preserving the activity of biomolecules and avoiding unwanted side effects. The characterization of molecular adsorption on a solid surface requires the use of analytical techniques, which are able to detect very low quantities of material in a liquid environment without modifying the adsorption process during acquisition. In general, the combination of different techniques will give a more complete characterization of the layers adsorbed onto a substrate. In this review, the authors will introduce the context, then the different factors influencing the adsorption of biomolecules, as well as relevant parameters that characterize their adsorption. They review surface-sensitive techniques which are able to describe different properties of proteins and polymeric films on solid two-dimensional materials and compare these techniques in terms of sensitivity, penetration depth, ease of use, and ability to perform “parallel measurements."
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